Don’t know the answer? Ask your PLN to save the day.


It’s a beautiful day. You are sitting comfortably in a warm classroom, listening to your students reading the answers to an exercise you assigned as homework. It’s one of those somewhat boring phases you need to survive before you can introduce a more exciting activity. Anyway, it’s a pre-intermediate class and the exercise is very short and very easy – it’s about the difference between will and going to. Your students know the rules (prediction, offer, promise, plan, etc.), you know the rules, so everybody is happy.

In the middle of the exercise, you suddenly realize it; once again, the wicked coursebook writers have included a question where no rule can be applied. You start panicking because you didn’t check the answer key. You never do with pre-intermediate classes, not for trivial grammar exercises like this one. The trouble is that both answers seem perfectly ok to you.

We’re going to the Caribbean this year.
a) It will be my first visit.
b) It’s going to be my first visit.

You know what’s going to happen now. It’s not the first time you’ve experienced this so you fully realize the disaster a few seconds before it actually happens: you won’t be able to predict what the answer key says. In other words, you won’t be able to guess which answer the coursebook writers expected the learners to pick.

You wait and hope that something or someone will save you. You could text a colleague and ask her to knock at the door. You could pretend to have passed out. Anyway, when the dreaded moment comes, the student reading the sentence chooses option B. You nod in agreement but hesitate for a second. The girl at the door must have noticed your reaction. They always sense your insecurity, your students. Her hand shoots up instantly as if she could read your mind. You know exactly what she’s going to do. You can predict it with absolute certainty.

“Isn’t A a better option here?”

“Damn it. Calm down. You are the teacher. You know the answer. Come on, there are only two options so there’s a 50% chance you get it right anyway. It’s like a game of roulette. Red or black? A or B? I can’t open the Teacher’s book now. What would they think? They’d think I don’t prepare for the lessons. They’d think I don’t know such a simple answer. No, I can’t check the answer in the key. Not this time. Not now.”

I put on a thoughtful expression and I tell the students that both options look acceptable to me. Unfortunately, it doesn’t seem the option they expected to hear. How come there are are two possible answers here? It’s all very suspicious. Oh dear, my reputation has been ruined. They will never trust me again. Or … they are never going to trust me again?

But then it dawns on me. There’s still a way out of this mess.

“Ok. Let’s ask fellow teachers on Facebook. Let’s see what they think”.

The students’ faces lighten up. Hm, this sounds interesting. Plus they can have a break. Yeah, let’s go and ask on Facebook.



From now on quite seriously. 🙂

Luckily, almost instantly, people started responding to my FB post. The good news is that the comments I got were quite varied. Most teachers found both options perfectly acceptable and some even came up with new, better ways of expressing the same thing. I made the post public so that my students could read the responses later. And they did!

In the next lesson, we had a nice discussion about the post. I think it was quite interesting for them to see that I can ask about a linguistic problem on social media and that people from all around the world will respond. The guilt was gone. I realized that if I had checked the answer key prior to the lesson, we would have never had such a nice exchange about a grammar point. Well, sometimes it’s better to be underprepared. 🙂


To monitor or not to monitor


Monitoring the class while the students work in pairs or groups is one of the classroom management techniques every teacher is expected to do. In a language classroom, we usually monitor activities to listen for the learners’ accuracy and fluency and also to check if everything is going according to plan.

However, I’ve recently realized that when I am in the role of a student/trainee/attendant of a workshop, a close physical presence of the teacher (or the presenter) is not pleasant to me. From this perspective, I often find monitoring distractive and intrusive, especially if the presenter is somebody I don’t know well. I simply can’t help the feeling that sometimes it’s as if the presenter is only pretending to be interested. The questions addressed to us sound like a small talk you have with strangers in the street – nice but totally pointless. It’s as if they knew that they are expected to be monitoring and that’s the only reason why they are doing it. I understand that sometimes they just need to blow off steam and thus they pace the room, distracting the attendees.

I prefer it when during pair work, the teacher/presenter stays in their default position, getting ready for the next stage of the lesson/workshop, for example, rather than monitoring us by closely listening to what we are discussing, occasionally asking a redundant question or giving unsolicited advice. I know I’m being harsh here but that’s how I see it now. 🙂

I mean, monitoring can and should be done only if it’s natural and absolutely necessary. I know that even adult learners like to have somebody nearby who they can ask a question if they come across a problem. However, I prefer it when we discuss the problem in the pair (that’s what we were asked to do after all) and we ask for clarification later – when we share the insights as a whole group and everybody can a have a say. This is what autonomy means to me. And if we believe in sharing and the benefits of peer work, i.e. we don’t do it just because it’s cool, we should simply leave the students alone. Thus, they can better concentrate on their tasks. I believe that the time during pair/group work should be the students’ private space, safe from the prying eyes (and ears) of the teacher.

I know there needs to be a certain amount of trust between the teacher and the students. If you believe your students will go on Facebook instead of doing the assigned work, you’ll probably need to monitor them every minute of every practice activity. And let’s be honest, we teachers are suspicious creatures. However, if you believe they can do well without the teacher being around all the time, you can relax and eavesdrop monitor from a distance.

Don’t ask questions you don’t want to know the answers to


The trouble with ELT is that it’s all too personal. To practise the present perfect you ask questions such as What’s the most embarrassing moment you’ve ever experienced?. To recycle vocabulary you ask: How are you feeling at the moment? Are you a hard-working person or are you lazy? To teach ways of expressing the future you ask your students about their ambitions and future plans. All in all, we interrogate and/or eavesdrop all the time. We think that to meet all the communicative goals and aims we simply have to do this. But what if we ask questions or set tasks and we are not prepared to hear the answers/outcomes.

Earlier today, when introducing the concept of stereotypes in an intermediate class, I gave my students the following task: I gave them cards with expressions on them, for example, a typical Czech teenager/pensioner/teacher/student/mother/man/etc. Their task was to describe these categories using sentences such as I usually sit in the park feeding pigeons. I am always short of money. The other student in the pair had to guess. Then I got them to share their answers as a whole-class activity. I was particularly curious to hear what they think about a typical Czech teacher. This is what one student came up with: I yell at my kids all the time. They don’t like me and they laugh at me when I’m not there. I do the same work over and over again and I’m badly paid. I have two months of holiday…

Although the student was allegedly describing a primary school teacher, all of a sudden, I desperately wanted to defend my job and tell the students that by no means do I feel this way. It eventually turned into a fruitful discussion but still… It got me thinking. Should we ask questions like this.? I mean, in fact, it wasn’t personal. It was me who made it personal. But you never know what to expect so you’d better be prepared for the worst case scenario.

In the same lesson, we read an article on how foreigners see a typical Czech. It was a tongue-in-the-cheek blog post (not the most recent one, by the way) and in one paragraph, it described how a typical Czech woman dresses. For example, it mentioned spray-on jeans and big cleavages. It was a group of 17-year students and at some point, it got a little embarrassing for me ( I felt the blush on my face) when one boy mentioned the cleavage thing and then inadvertently looked at me (mind you, I was wearing a regular T-shirt!). I know it’s a very natural reaction; when talking about hairstyles, you will probably look at the other person’s head. Anyway, to make things worse for myself, I realized I was wearing tight jeans (as were many other girls in the group). What I mean is that sometimes, things can get a bit embarrassing in an L2 classroom no matter if somebody’s remark is meant as an insult, which is a rare case, or if it’s totally harmless. You simply have to develop a thick skin.

Once a teacher trainee I had observed was quite sad after the lesson. Her question “Are you bored?”, addressed to a teenage boy, was rewarded with an instant answer: “Yes”. I later explained to her that she shouldn’t take it personally (yes, I of all people!). If a student is bored, it doesn’t necessarily mean it’s a boring lesson. Plus I reassured her that he probably didn’t even mean it. Either he might not have wanted to elaborate on her question or he did not understand. Or he was just being very insensitive. I didn’t tell her that she shouldn’t have asked the question in the first place.

To sum up, being in a language classroom is pretty dangerous sometimes. And the ones in danger are not only the students but the teacher as well. 🙂



What do you do when you unexpectedly have to stand in for a colleague, and you only learn about it a few minutes prior to the class? Do you have a versatile ‘survival kit’ to use in such a situation? What is it or what does it consist of?

In my case, it’s definitely graded readers. They come in handy whenever I have to cover a lesson, particularly in a group I don’t normally teach.

There are many things you can do with graded readers. This is what I’ve tried so far:

  1. You simply tell the students to read a book of their choice (or the book you give them) and go about your business, such as paperwork walk around the room and monitor. You can ask them to write a review afterwards. The trouble is that you should read the reviews and give some feedback (don’t bother the teacher whose lesson you are covering!). This is time-consuming so think twice. 🙂
  2. You can ask them to read a part of the book and then they should predict what happens next (if they do it in pairs/groups, you’ve just created an opportunity for them to practice speaking). Later or in the next lesson, they finish the book and compare their endings with the real one (more speaking time!).
  3. If you have the recording too, you can play it in class. The students listen (with books closed or opened, depending on what you want them to practice/focus on). There don’t necessarily have to be any tasks. Sometimes we just listen to something for pleasure. Period. However, you can have a short discussion afterwards.
  4. You can play a chapter (books closed) and then the class reads the next chapter (with no audio on). Then you push the play button again (don’t forget to skip the chapter they’ve read silently).
  5. If you only have one copy of the book, you can ask a student to sit at the front with the book opened, and as the class listens, the student puts some useful/unknown language on the board. After some time/ a few pages, it’s another student’s turn. You can discuss the words on the board after each pause or at the end of the lesson.
  6. With Romeo and Juliet, for example, I only have one copy, so I scanned the pages and projected them on the screen as we were listening. It’s a play (very low level), so it was feasible.
  7. Having said that, my favourite graded reader is Survive! It’s very simple in terms of language and you can either use it with small kids, who just enjoy reading it silently or build a nice conversation lesson with an intermediate class.

You are in a small plane, going across the Rocky Mountains. Suddenly, the engine starts to make strange noises… Soon you are alone, in the snow, at the top of a mountain, and it is very, very cold. Can you find your way out of the mountain?


The great thing is that it’s an interactive type of reading. It’s quite similar to what you experience when you play a computer game, which is why it’s so popular, I guess. As you read, your decisions lead to certain consequences and in the end, you either survive or die.

Today, I had to cover a lesson for a colleague of mine and I learned about it a few minutes prior to the class. So, I gave each student a copy of the Survive! book. First, they read it silently completing the tasks. Meanwhile, I put some functional language on the board. When everybody finished, I pretended to be the captain of the plane going across the Rocky Mountains while the students were my crew. Suddenly, the engine started to make strange noises… I asked my crew what we should do. I elicited some answers. After demonstrating the activity with the whole class, I divided them into 3 groups of 4. I told them that they were in their small private planes and that they had to make some decisions again, but now they had to discuss all the pros and cons and agree as a group before taking a step. Surprisingly, it didn’t matter that they had already gone through the whole thing. It panned out really well and some students even turned it into a drama worth filming. 🙂

Meanwhile, I put some more functional language on the board (mainly modals in the past).

Finally (and this was inspired by the Mutiny on the Bounty movie), I asked them to explain/justify their bad choices, in hindsight. They could also say what had gone well and why. This time, I pretended to be a judge. I expected sentences like:

We shouldn’t have turned left. It was a really bad idea. Also, we shouldn’t have eaten the fruit. However, it was clever to go down the mountain because… 

Anyway, I think that as a teacher, I survived too!

All the different combinations of formal observation

IMG_20180817_131315_969I’ve written about formal observation here on my blog a few times before but don’t think I’ve ever considered all the different types of observation a teacher like me can experience based on who the observee is and what the observer is focusing on.

So far I’ve encountered the following situations:

  1. I observe my colleague (as a colleague).
  2. I observe my colleague (as her immediate superior).
  3. I observe an outside worker (as her mentor/supervisor/trainer).
  4. I am observed by a colleague.
  5. I am observed by my administrators/boss.
  6. I am observed by an outside worker/teacher trainee.

The above six situations can be combined with the following:

A) The observer zooms in on the observee teaching a random group of learners. Such a group of learners can be specifically chosen/created for this purpose, for one semester only, for example. I experienced this situation during my internal teaching practice at uni.

B) The observer zooms in on the observee teaching her own class. The observer doesn’t necessarily know the class (this is usually combined with points 1 or 2 above).

C) The observer zooms in on the observee teaching the observer’s class (this is usually combined with point 3.)

D) The observer zooms in on the class rather than the observee – either out of curiosity or because there have been some issues and the observee needs help (this is usually combined with points 1, 2 or 5).

My favourite type of observation, which, by the way, I’ve recently experienced for the very first time, is observing an outside worker teaching my own class. The fact that I consider this my favourite type of observation is pretty egoistic if you think about it because the observee, as well as the class, are at a disadvantage. The thing is that it’s likely that the observee doesn’t know the test subjects learners very well and the class may feel nervous since they don’t know what to expect from the new teacher. Plus I am there to rule watch them all.

Anyway, there are some benefits too. For one, I can help the observee by giving her tips – prior to the lesson or afterwards – because I know my class like the back of my hand. I believe that if she is a regular teacher, teaching an unknown group of learners may help her see what she does with her own classes. Some things are better seen from a distance after all. For two, and this is the selfish part, I can see what my students are like from a totally different angle – virtually and metaphorically. For example, as I usually sit among the students, my physical perspective changes a great deal. Also, I can see the impact the observee’s teaching has on my class because at last, I have an opportunity to go through the whole process together with the students. It’s even more authentic if the observee doesn’t show me her lesson plan in advance. Thus I can tell how clear her instructions are and/or how motivating the lesson is overall. Actually, the observee is like a mirror I’m looking in: her mistakes and achievements may in effect reflect all the things I do in class myself.

And the most desirable outcome is when I can happily exclaim: “Heureka! My students did really well in your lesson (secretly thinking: … because I did a good job as a teacher)”. 🙂






L1 in the L2 classroom – a waste of time?

youtube-2617510_1280.jpgAfter so many years of experience in English teaching, I’m still not utterly convinced that sharing the same L1 with my students is an advantage. My doubts have been around for a long time and they probably stem from my conviction that if English is the only means of communication, students will learn best. In other words, only-English-no-Czech has mostly been my default mode of teaching. Unfortunately, I’ve never been able to test my hypothesis about the effectiveness of this approach to the fullest because, with a few exceptions, I’ve always had monolingual classes and I simply had to use Czech in some situations. The thing is that if you don’t share the same L1 with your students, it’s quite natural to speak English all the time, no matter what, but I’m not that type of teacher who will only reply in English when a student stops me in the corridor and asks where the toilet is, for example.

Anyway, I imagine there are situations when the teacher can take advantage of the fact that they speak the same language as their students. I mentioned one example in my previous post; you can tell an interesting story in L1 to motivate your students to share their stories (in L1 or L2) and this way you can get a richer content to build on in L2.

Also, take listening, for example. I don’t know about your classes but normally, we watch a video clip in English and we discuss it in English. This seems to be the only logical procedure; it’s an English class after all. But if you think about it, it’s probably the least authentic option; a group of Czech students watch a clip in English (so far so good) and then they discuss it in English while their Czech teacher of English is listening and responding in English (weird). Putting aside the fact that this approach has some pedagogic values, such as that the L2 input from the listening is likely to be used as an L2 output, where on earth (other than the classroom) will such a situation occur? I mean, how often do your students go to an English speaking country to discuss English stuff with their English-speaking buddies?

I believe that in my students’ context, there are much more authentic possibilities than this:

You watch a Czech clip and then discuss it in English. I remember many occasions when I wanted or needed to tell my English speaking friend about something that had happened to me in a Czech context. It’s always a bit more challenging that retelling a story which you have come across in an English newspaper, for example, because in a way, you have to translate from L1 into L2. Since there is no L2 input to rely on, you need to search for it in your ‘language inventory’ or sometimes even coin new language. Thus, due to cultural and linguistic barriers, the output is not always as accurate as you wish it to be so lots of negotiating for meaning is likely to occur in such a situation.

You watch an English clip and then discuss it in Czech. Discussing something in Czech seems to be a waste of time at first sight but sometimes it can be very useful. If the L2 content is too complex and challenging, you may need to allow your students to switch to L1. From the pedagogical point of view, it’s quite valuable because the scope of a student’s L1 output may tell you how well they understood the L2 input. Based on my experience, some students have a lot to say but since they are not too confident when using English, they prefer to remain quiet during discussions. If you ask them to use Czech to tell you what they think, you may be surprised how much English vocabulary from the listening they know in comparison with the most enthusiastic speakers who always volunteer to respond in English.

Finally, what about watching a Czech clip and discussing it in Czech first? Well, I’ve never tried this option in class but I guess there are some benefits too, especially if it’s the first step towards something more complex. Plus it’s not really inauthentic either. I mean, I watch a Czech movie at home, discuss it with my son, sort out my ideas and then I may want to share this experience with an English speaking friend or on social media. So, why not?

Well, after so many years of experience in English teaching, I’m still not utterly convinced that sharing the same L1 with my students is an advantage, but I’m slowly getting there. 🙂

Since the last time …

Today I’d like to share some of the interesting things that have happened in the classroom since the new school year started:


>>> In one of the first lessons, instead of speaking English right from the start, which I normally do, I used Czech to tell a story about something that had happened to me. This was quite unusual because with (pre-)intermediate classes there’s no reason to avoid English. Well, I hadn’t planned it; I chose to go for Czech spontaneously since I thought it might motivate the students to share their own stories more enthusiastically. Actually, to be completely honest, I also broke the habit for rather selfish reasons; I’m not too confident when telling stories in English (let alone after a long break). Anyway, later on, I asked my students to share their stories either in Czech, like me, or in English. Needless to say, following my example, most of them chose to speak Czech. I was quite surprised (well, not really) that they were more open than usual. This was good because subsequently, I had a lot of content to build on.

>>> I was observed for several lessons non-stop and later, on the same day, the observer became the observee. It was not a colleague from the school but a young teacher who came to my lessons to get some formal work experience. The most interesting thing is that she is not a newbie teacher at all; she has been teaching for 6 years in the private sector of ELT. She teaches students who have not been accepted by any university and instead of taking a gap year, they attend this fairly expensive English course. Since I teach kids and teenagers in the state sector of education, we had a lot to talk about. Plus it was really refreshing to observe somebody ‘new’ and once again I realized that some people are born to be teachers, regardless of how many years of experience they have.

>>> I stole an activity from somebody outside the ELT field and it worked really well in my own teaching context. I had collected some of my son’s toys and little things I have at home, such as shells and buttons, and I used them in class for different types of activities. Once students were supposed to imagine that these were really expensive items and they had to invent stories about what made them so valuable. The students were really creative and the warm-up finally evolved into a nice discussion.

>>> Earlier today I took advantage of an authentic situation to help my senior students to practice speaking, namely the Interaction part of their final English exam. I told them my colleague, four students from our school and I were planning to travel to Luxembourg next month (and this is true). Unfortunately, the bus arrives at 3 am so we need to find a place to stay for a couple of hours. I showed them the website of the hostel my Luxembourgish colleague has recommended to me. I put them in pairs (one of them was supposed to be me and the other one was the receptionist) and asked them to make a reservation at that particular hostel considering all the pro and cons. I told them this would really help me to figure things out in this tricky situation.